Upon the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865, many Americans thought that slavery had been abolished once and for all. Frederick Douglass, however, argued that “slavery is not abolished until the black man has the ballot.” His fight to secure the vote transformed not only the Constitution, but what it meant to be an American.


  • Prof. Lucas Morel, Washington and Lee University
  • Timothy Sandefur, Vice President for Litigation, Goldwater Institute
  • Prof. Bradley Rebeiro, Brigham Young University J. Reuben Clark Law School


As always, the Federalist Society takes no position on particular legal or public policy issues; all expressions of opinion are those of the speaker.